What is an array simple definition?

What is an array simple definition? : An array is a grouping of related data elements kept in close proximity to one another in memory . It is the most basic data structure because each data element can be directly accessed by using only its index number.

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An array is a set of identically typed elements that are organized into contiguous memory locations and can each be individually referred to using an index to a special identifier.

where each blank panel represents an element of the array. In this case , these are values of type int. These elements are numbered from 0 to 4, with 0 being the first while 4 being the last; In C++, the index of the first array element is always zero. As expected, an n array must be declared prior its use. A typical declaration for an array in C++ is:

type name [elements];

where type is a valid type (such as int, float …),name is a valid identifier and the elements field (which is always enclosed in square brackets []), specifies the size of the array.

Thus, the foo array, with five elements of type int, can be declared as:

int foo [5];

NOTE: The elements field within square brackets [], representing the number of elementsin the array, must be a constant expression, since arrays are blocks of static memory whose size must be known at compile time. Initializing arrays

are left empty by default. This means that none of its elements are given a specific value; rather, their values are unknown at the time the array is declared.

The initializer can even have no values, just the braces:

int baz [5] = { }; 

This generates an array of five int values, each initialized to zero:

But, the elements in an array can be explicitly initialized to specific values when it is declared,by enclosing those initial values in braces {}. For example:

int foo [5] = { 16, 2, 77, 40, 12071 };  

Using the following representation, this statement declares an array.

The number of values between braces {} shall not be greater than the number of elements in the array. For example, in the example above, foo was declared having 5 elements (as specified by the number enclosed in square brackets, []), and the braces {} contained exactly 5values, one for each element. If declared with less, the remaining elements are set to their default values (which for fundamental types, means they are filled with zeroes). For example:

int bar [5] = { 10, 20, 30 };  

Will create an array like this:

When an initialization of values is provided for an array, C++ allows the possibility of leaving the square brackets empty[]. In this case, the compiler will assume automatically asize for the array that matches the number of values included between the braces {}:

int foo [] = { 16, 2, 77, 40, 12071 };

After this declaration, array foo would be five int long, since we have provided five initialization values.

Finally, the evolution of C++ has led to the adoption of universal initialization also for arrays. Therefore, there is no longer need for the equal sign between the declaration and the initializer. Both these statements are equivalent:

int foo[] = { 10, 20, 30 };int foo[] { 10, 20, 30 }; 

Here, the compiler determines the array’s size using the formula n=of initializers/sizeof(int).

In the absence of any function, static arrays and those declared directly in a namespace are always initialized. The default initialization of all the elements is zeroes for basic types if no explicit initializer is specified. Accessing an array.

The values of any of the elements in an array can be accessed just like the value of a regular variable of the same type. The syntax is:


The name that can be used to refer to each element is the following, following the previous examples where foo had five elements and each of those elements was of type int.

For example, the following statement stores the value 75 in the third element of foo:

foo [2] = 75;

and, for example, the following copies the value of the fourth element of foo to a variable called x:

x = foo[3];

Therefore, the expressionfoo[2] or foo[4] is always evaluated to an int. Notice that the third element of foo is specified foo[2], the second one is foo[1], since the first one is foo[0]. It’s last element is therefore foo[4]. If we write foo[5], we would be accessing the sixth element of foo, and therefore actually exceeding the size of the array.

In C++, it is syntactically correct to exceed the valid range of indices for an array. This can create problems, since accessingout-of-range elements do not cause errors on compilation, but can cause errors on runtime. The reason for this being allowed because index checking slows down program execution. At this point, it is important to be able to clearly distinguish between the two uses that brackets [] have related to arrays. They perform two different tasks: one is to specify the size of arrays when they are declared; and the second one is to specify indices for concrete array elements when they are accessed. Do notconfuse these two possible uses of brackets [] with arrays.

int foo[5];         // declaration of a new arrayfoo[2] = 75;        // access to an element of the array.  

The primary distinction is that the type of the elements comes before the declaration but not the access.

Some other valid operations with arrays:

foo[0] = a;foo[i] = 75;b = foo [i+2];foo[foo[i]] = foo[i] + 5;

For example:

// arrays example#include <iostream>using namespace std;int foo [] = {16, 2, 77, 40, 12071};int i, result=0;int main (){  for ( i=0 ; i<5 ; i++ )  {    result += foo[i];  }  cout << result;  return 0;}

12206 Multidimensional arrays

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Multidimensional arrays can be described as “arrays of arrays”. For example, a bi-dimensional array can be imagined as a two-dimensional table made of elements, all of them holdsame type of elements.

Table represents a bi-dimensional array of 3 per 5 elements of type int. The C++ syntax for this is

int Table [3][5];

and, for example, the way to reference the second element vertically and fourth horizontally in an expression would be:


(remember that array indices always begin with zero).

Multidimensionalarrays are not limited to two indices (i.e., two dimensions). They can contain as many indices as needed. Although be careful: the amount of memory needed for an array increases exponentially with each dimension. For example:

char century [100][365][24][60][60];

declares an array with one char-type element for every second of the last century. This would require more than 3 gigabytes of memory and contain more than 3 billion characters. Such a declaration is highly improbable and highlights the inefficient use of memory.

At the end, multidimensional arrays are just an abstraction for programmers, since the same results can be achieved with a simple array, by multiplying its indices:

int Table [3][5];   // is equivalent toint Table [15];     // (3 * 5 = 15)  

With the only difference that with multidimensional arrays, the compiler automatically remembers the depth of each imaginary dimension. The following two pieces of code produce the exact same result, but one uses a bi-dimensional array while the other uses a simple array:


const int WIDTH = 5;const int HEIGHT = 3;int Table [HEIGHT][WIDTH];int n,m;int main (){  for (n=0; n<HEIGHT; n++)    for (m=0; m<WIDTH; m++)    {      Table[n][m]=(n+1)*(m+1);    }}

Pseudo-multidimensional array

const int WIDTH = 5;const int HEIGHT = 3;int Table [HEIGHT * WIDTH];int n,m;int main (){  for (n=0; n<HEIGHT; n++)    for (m=0; m<WIDTH; m++)    {      Table[n*WIDTH+m]=(n+1)*(m+1);    }}						

The two code snippets above don’t output anything to the screen, but they do both assign the following values to the memory block called Jimmy:

Note that the code uses named constants for the width and height, instead of using directly their numerical values. This gives the code a better readability, and allows changesin the code to be made easily in one place.

Using Loop to input an Two-Dimensional Array from user

int mat[3][5], row, col ;for (row = 0; row < 3; row++)for (col = 0; col < 5; col++)cin >> mat[row][col];        

Arrays as Parameters

Two-dimensional arrays can be passed as parameters to a function, and they are passed by reference. This means that the function can directly access and modified the contents of the passed array. When declaring a two-dimensional array as a formal parameter, we can omit the size of the first dimension, but not the second; that is, we mustspecify the number of columns. For example:

void print(int A[][3],int N, int M)

In order to pass to this function an array declared as:

int arr[4][3];

we need to write a call like this:

print(arr); Here is a complete example:

#include <iostream>using namespace std; void print(int A[][3],int N, int M){  for (R = 0; R < N; R++)    for (C = 0; C < M; C++)       cout << A[R][C];}int main (){  int arr[4][3] ={{12, 29, 11},                  {25, 25, 13},                  {24, 64, 67},                  {11, 18, 14}};  print(arr,4,3);  return 0;}

Engineers use two dimensional arrays in order to represent matrices. The code for a function that finds the sum of the two matrices A and B are shown below.

Function to find the sum of two Matrices

void Addition(int A[][20], int B[][20],int N, int M){  for (int R=0;R<N;R++)    for(int C=0;C<M;C++)      C[R][C]=A[R][C]+B[R][C];}

Function to find out transpose of a matrix A

 void Transpose(int A[][20], int B[][20],int N, int M){  for(int R=0;R<N;R++)    for(int C=0;C<M;C++)       B[R][C]=A[C][R];}

Arrays as parameters

We might occasionally need to supply an array as a parameter to a function. An entire array’s representation of a memory block cannot be passed directly as an argument to a function in C. But its address can be passed in its place. In actuality, this is a much faster and more effective operation that achieves a result that is nearly identical.

To accept an array as parameter for a function, the parameters can be declared as the array type, butwith empty brackets, omitting the actual size of the array. For example:

void procedure (int arg[])

This function accepts a parameter of type “array of int” called arg. In order to pass to this function an array declared as:

int myarray [40];

it would be enough to write a call like this:

procedure (myarray);

Here you have a complete example:


// arrays as parameters#include <iostream>using namespace std;void printarray (int arg[], int length) {  for (int n=0; n<length; ++n)    cout << arg[n] << ' ';  	cout << '\n';}int main (){  int firstarray[] = {5, 10, 15};  int secondarray[] = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10};  printarray (firstarray,3);  printarray (secondarray,5);}


5 10 152 4 6 8 10

In the code above, the first parameter (int arg[]) accepts any array whose elementsare of type int, whatever its length. For that reason, we have included a second parameter that tells the function the length of each array that we pass to it as its first parameter.

In a function declaration, it is also possible to include multidimensional arrays. The format for a tridimensional array parameter is:


For example, a function with a multidimensional array as argument could be:

void procedure (int myarray[][3][4])

Notice that the first brackets [] are left empty, while thefollowing ones specify sizes for their respective dimensions. This is necessary in order for the compiler to be able to determine the depth of each additional dimension.

Passing Array to function

Multidimensional Arrays

Print outMultidemensioanl Arrays


Create an array using Loop

Using Arrays in calculation

What is array definition in C? : The definition of an array in C is a way to group together several entities of the same type. These entities or elements may be of the int, float, char, double, or user-defined data types, such as structures.
What is array and example? : A grouping of comparable types of data is called an array. For instance, if we need to store the names of 100 people, we can make a string type array that can hold 100 names. new String[100]; String[] array;
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An array is a variable that can store multiple values. For example, if you want to store 100 integers, you can create an array for it.

int data[100]; 

How to declare an array?

dataType arrayName[arraySize];

Suppose you declared an array mark as above. The first element is mark[0], the second element is mark[1] and so on.

Declare an Array

Few keynotes:

  • Arrays have 0 as the first index, not 1. In this example, mark[0] is the first element.
  • If the size of an array is n, to access the last element, the n-1 index is used. In this example, mark[4]
  • Suppose thestarting address of mark[0] is 2120d. Then, the address of the mark[1] will be 2124d. Similarly, the address of mark[2] will be 2128d and so on. This is because the size of a float is 4 bytes.
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How to initialize an array?

It is possible to initialize an array during declaration. For example,

int mark[5] = {19, 10, 8, 17, 9};

You can also initialize an array like this.

int mark[] = {19, 10, 8, 17, 9};

Here, the size is left unspecified. However, because we initialize it with 5 elements, the compiler is aware that it has a 5 element size. Arrays should be created at the beginning.


mark[0] is equal to 19mark[1] is equal to 10mark[2] is equal to 8mark[3] is equal to 17mark[4] is equal to 9

Change Value of Array elements

int mark[5] = {19, 10, 8, 17, 9}// make the value of the third element to -1mark[2] = -1;// make the value of the fifth element to 0mark[4] = 0;

Input and Output Array Elements

Here’s how you can take input from the userand store it in an array element.

// take input and store it in the 3rd element​scanf("%d", &mark[2]);// take input and store it in the ith elementscanf("%d", &mark[i-1]);

Here’s how you can print an individual element of an array.

// print the first element of the arrayprintf("%d", mark[0]);// print the third element of the arrayprintf("%d", mark[2]);// print ith element of the arrayprintf("%d", mark[i-1]);

Example 1: Array Input/Output

// Program to take 5 values from the user and store them in an array// Print the elements stored in the array#include <stdio.h>int main() {  int values[5];  printf("Enter 5 integers: ");  // taking input and storing it in an array  for(int i = 0; i < 5; ++i) {     scanf("%d", &values[i]);  }  printf("Displaying integers: ");  // printing elements of an array  for(int i = 0; i < 5; ++i) {     printf("%d\n", values[i]);  }  return 0;}


Enter 5 integers: 1-33403Displaying integers: 1-33403

Here, we have used a for loop to take 5 inputs from the user and store them in an array. Then, using another for loop, these elements are displayed on the screen.

Example 2: Calculate Average

// Program to find the average of n numbers using arrays#include <stdio.h>int main() {  int marks[10], i, n, sum = 0, average;  printf("Enter number of elements: ");  scanf("%d", &n);  for(i=0; i < n; ++i) {    printf("Enter number%d: ",i+1);    scanf("%d", &marks[i]);              // adding integers entered by the user to the sum variable    sum += marks[i];  }  average = sum / n;  printf("Average = %d", average);  return 0;}


Enter n: 5Enter number1: 45Enter number2: 35Enter number3: 38Enter number4: 31Enter number5: 49Average = 39

Here,we have computed the average of n numbers entered by the user.

Access elements out of its bound!

Suppose you declared an array of 10 elements. Let’s say,

int testArray[10];

You can access the array elements from testArray[0] to testArray[9].

Now let’s say if you try to access testArray[12]. The element is not available. This may cause unexpected output (undefined behavior). Sometimes you might get an error and some other time your program may run correctly.

Hence,you should never access elements of an array outside of its bound.

Multidimensional arrays

In this tutorial, you learned about arrays. These arrays are called one-dimensional arrays.

Multidimensional arrays (array of an array) will be covered in the upcoming tutorial.

What is an array one word answer? : a collection of two or more logically related elements that are given a single name and are frequently stored in succession in main memory.
Read Detail Answer On What is an array one word answer?

An array is a group of related data elements kept in close proximity to one another in memory. Each data element can be accessed directly by using only its index number, making it the simplest data structure.

For instance, there is no need to define separate variables for each subject if we are storing a student’s marks across 5 subjects. Instead, we could define an array that would keep the data elements in close proximity to one another.

Array marks[5] define the marks scored by a student in 5 different subjects where each subject’s marks are located at a particular location in the array, i.e., marks[0] denote the marks scored in the first subject, marks[1] denotes the marks scored in 2nd subject andso on.

Need of using Array –

In most programming situations, a large amount of data of a similar type must be stored. To store this much data, we must define a lot of variables. To remember every variable name while writing the programs would be very difficult. Instead, creating an array and placing all the elements inside of it is preferable.

Inthe following example, we have given marks to a student in 5 different subjects. The aim is to calculate the average of a student’s marks.

Without Using Array

#include<stdio.h>void main(){        	int subject1 = 40, subject2 = 52, subject3 = 47, subject4 = 70, subject5= 67;        	float avg = (subject1 + subject2 + subject3 + subject4 + subject5)/5;        	printf(avg);}

Using Array

#include<stdio.h>void main(){        	int subject1 = 40, subject2 = 52, subject3 = 47, subject4 = 70, subject5= 67;        	float avg = (subject1 + subject2 + subject3 + subject4 + subject5)/5;        	printf(avg);}

The Complexity of Array Operations

Time Complexity

Algorithm Average case Worst case
Access O(1) O(1)
Search O(n) O(n)
Insertion O(n) O(n)
Deletion O(n) O(n)

The space complexity of an array for the worst case is O(n).

Advantages of Array

  •  Arrays represent multiple data elements of the same type using a single name.
  • Accessing or searching an element in an array is easy by using the index number.
  •  An array can be traversed easily just by incrementing the index by 1.
  • Arrays allocate memory in contiguousmemory locations for all its data elements.

Types of indexing in Array

0 (Zero Based Indexing) – The array’s first element makes reference to index 0.

One-Based Indexing (1BI): The array’s first element refers to index 1.

· n (n Based Indexing)- The base index of an array can be chosen as per requirement.

Accessing Elements in an Array – 

To access any element of an array, we need the following details:

  • Base Address of array.
  • Size of an element in bytes.
  • Which type of indexingarray follows.
  • The following formula can be used to determine the address of any element in a 1D array:

    Byte address of an element A[i] = base address + size * (i – first index)

    Passing Array to a Function – 

    The address of the array’s first element is represented by the array’s name, as was already mentioned. An array’s elements can be accessed by using just the base address.

    The example that follows shows how to pass an array to a function.

    The below program defines a function named total, which accepts an array as an argument. This function calculates the sum of all the elements of the array.

    #include<stdio.h>int total(int[]);void main(){	int arr[5] = {0,1,2,3,4};	int sum = total(arr);	printf(“%d”,sum);}int total(int arr[]){	int sum=0;	int i;	for(i=0; i<5; i++)	{		sum = sum + arr[i];	}	return sum;}

    2D Array– Defined

    An array of arrays is a common definition for two-dimensional arrays. Another name for a 2D array is a matrix. A table with rows and columns can be used to represent a matrix.

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    How to declare 2D Array?

    A 2D array’s declaration syntax is very similar to that of a 1D array.

    Syntax – 

    int arr[max_rows][max_columns];

    It produces data structure as shown below:

    How to access data in a 2D array?

    Similar to how data in a one-dimensional array can be accessed using only an index, in a two-dimensional array, we can access the individual cells using their indices. A single cell has two indices; the first is the row number and the second is the column number.

    The syntax for storing the value in any specific array cell.

    int x = a[i][j];

    Here i and j are the row and column indices, respectively.

    Initializing 2D array – 

    There is no requirement to specify the array size when declaring a one-dimensional array, but a two-dimensional array has different requirements. We must at least specify the row size for a 2D array, i. e. a second dimension.

    Syntax to declare 2D array – 

    int arr[2][2] = {1,2,3,4}

    The number of elements present in a 2D array will always be equal to (number of rows * number of columns).

    Example :

    C program to store user’s data into a 2D array

    #include<stdio.h>void main(){	int arr[4][4],i,j;	for (i=0; i<4; i++)	{		for (j=0; j<4; j++)		{			printf(“Enter value for arr[%d][%d]: “ i,j);			scanf(“%d”,&arr[i][j]);		}	}}

     Java program to store user’s data into a 2D array

    import java.util.Scanner;publicclass ArrayTwoD {publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) {int[][] arr = newint[4][4];Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);for(int i=0; i<4; i++){for(int j=0; j<4;j++){	System.out.print(“Enter Data”);	arr[i][j] = sc.nextInt();	System.out.println();}}}}

    Mapping 2D to 1D array – 

    The primary purpose of 2D arrays is to implement a data structure that resembles a database table. A two-dimensional array’s storage method in computer memory is comparable to a one-dimensional array’s.

    A 2D array’s size is equal to the product of the number of rows and columns present in the array. Thus, in order to store two-dimensional arrays in memory, we must map them to one-dimensional arrays.

    The picture below displays a 3 X 3 2D array.

    There are 2 main techniques to map a two-dimensional array to one-dimensional array.

  • Row Major Ordering
  • All the rows of the two-dimensional array are kept together in memory when they are stored in row-major ordering. The above image depicts an array, and the memory allocation for that array using the row-major order technique is displayed below.

    First, we insert elements of the 1st row of the 2D array into the memory,followed by the elements of the 2nd row and so on.

  • Column Major Ordering
  • All the columns of the two-dimensional array are stored in the memory in a continuous manner using column-major ordering. The memory allocation for the array in the preceding image using the column-major order method is displayed below.

    First, we insert elements of the 1st column of the 2D array into the memory, followed by the elements of the 2nd column, and so on.

    In A Nutshell

    With this PG Program in Software Development, which has everything the top tech and product companies look for, you can broaden your horizons while learning about an array, thanks to instruction designed by industry experts. programming fundamentals, databases, and a variety of coding challenges. Take this one by the horns.

    Additional Question — What is an array simple definition?

    Why is array used?

    A data structure called an array can hold a fixed-size group of identically data-typed elements. Although an array is a container for a set of data, it is frequently more helpful to think of an array as a set of variables of the same type.

    Which is the best definition of array?

    You can pick from a variety of colors. 2: a collection of people arranged in a particular order (as soldiers). 3: exquisite or lovely attire They were dressed in a magnificent array. 4: a standard sequence or arrangement. 5: an arrangement of mathematical components (such as numbers or letters) in rows and columns.

    What is array and its types?

    An ordered group of elements of a single data type makes up an array type, a user-defined data type. Ordinary array types use the ordinal position as the array index and have a defined upper limit on the number of elements they can contain.

    What are the types of arrays?

    Associative arrays, multidimensional arrays, and indexed arrays are the three different types of arrays.

    What is the synonym of array?

    (also marshal), systematize, range, order.

    What is an array Mcq?

    A collection of comparable data items stored at adjacent memory locations is referred to as an array. In the C programming language, arrays are a derived data type that can store data of all types, including int, char, double, float, and others.

    What is array in C sharp?

    Instead of declaring different variables for every value, arrays are used to store multiple values in a single variable. String[] cars; We have now declared a variable that contains an array of strings. To declare an array, enclose the variable type in square brackets.

    What is an array C++?

    A collection of identically typed objects arranged in a row or column of memory that can each be individually referred to using an index to a special identifier is known as an array. It is not necessary to declare five distinct variables, each with its own identifier, when declaring an array of five int values.

    What is array in Excel?

    A formula that can perform multiple calculations on one or more items in an array is called an array formula. An array can be thought of as a row, column, or combination of rows and columns of values. Array formulas may produce a single result or a number of results.

    How do you create an array?

    An array can contain values of any type, including ints, doubles, and other types, but all of the values in an array must be of the same type. You must first declare a variable with an array type before you can actually create the array. A pair of square brackets ([]) follows an array type, which otherwise resembles other Java types.

    What is a table array?

    Lookup functions in Excel, like VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP, can take a table array as one of their arguments. To locate specific data, the LOOKUP functions browse the table array. The table_array must have at least two data columns in order to perform a VLOOKUP (vertical lookup).

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