The modern computer took its shape with the arrival of your time It had been around 16th century when the evolution of the computer started The initial computer faced many changes , obviously for the betterment It continuously improved itself in terms of speed, accuracy, size, and price to urge the form of the fashionable day computer This long period is often conveniently divided into the subsequent phases called computer generations: First Generation Computers(1940-1956) Second Generation Computers (1956-1963) Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present) Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)
Before there are graphing calculators, spreadsheets, and computer algebra systems, mathematicians and inventors searched for solutions to ease the burden of calculation
Here are the eight mechanical calculators used prior to the development of modern computers .
1 Abacus (ca 2700 BC)
2. Calculator made by Pascal in 1652.
3 Stepped Reckoner (1694)
4 Arithmometer (1820)
5 Comptograph and Comptometer were invented in 1889.
6 The Difference Engine (1822).
7 1834: Analytical Engine
8. The Millionaire (1893) and Vacuum Tubes (1940–1956), the first generation of computers.
The technology behind the primary generation computers was a fragile glass device, whichwas called vacuum tubes These computers were very heavy and really large in size These werent very reliable and programming on them was a really tedious task as they used high-level programming language and used no OS First-generation computers were used for calculation, storage, and control purpose They were too bulky and large that they needed a full room and consume rot of electricity
The main ENIAC, or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, was created by J. John V. and Presper Eckert Mauchly was a multipurpose computer. There were 18,000 vacuum tubes inside of it, and it had been very large and heavy. The Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, or EDVAC, was created by von Neumann. Speed was increased because it could store data as well as instructions. Developed in 1952 by Eckert and Mauchly, UNIVAC stands for Universal Automatic Computer.
Main electronic component, programming language, main memory, input/output devices, speed, and size are the characteristics of first-generation computers. Examples of the first-generation vacuum tube. artificial language Magnetized drums and magnetic tapes. Punch-card technology and paper tape. extremely large and slow—often filling the entire room. IBM 650, IBM 701, ENIAC, UNIVAC1, etc. Transistors in second-generation computers (1956–1963).
Instead of hefty vacuum tubes, second-generation computers used transistor technology. The core storage was another feature. A transistor is a semiconductor-based device that amplifies signals or opens or closes circuits.
Bell Labs is where transistors were first created. The use of transistors made it possible to perform powerfully and with due speed It decreased the size, the cost, and, thankfully, the warmth that was produced by the vacuum tubes. The second generation saw the introduction of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, programming language, and input and output units.
Programming language was changed from high level to programming language, making it relatively easy for programmers to create programs. Programming was done in FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL (1958), and COBOL (1959) during this time.
The following are the primary characteristics of computers of the second generation: main electronic componentProgramming languageMemoryInput/output devicesPower and sizeExamples of second generation Transistor. language used by machines and assembly language. Magnetic tape/disk and magnetic core. Punch-card technology and magnetic tape. less heat was produced, and it was smaller and used less power than first-generation computers. PDP-8, the IBM 1400 series, the IBM 7090 and 7094, the UNIVAC 1107, the CDC 3600, etc. Integrated Circuits are used in third-generation computers. (1964-1971)
Technology predicted a switch from massive transistors to integrated circuits, also known as ICs, during the third generation. On these silicon chips, or semiconductors, various types of transistors were arranged. The speed and dependability of the computers in this era were their best features. ICs, also known as silicon chips, were constructed from silicon.
On a single thin piece of silicon, an integrated circuit (IC) is made up of numerous transistors, registers, and capacitors. During this generation, value size was decreased while memory usage and dealing efficiency were both improved. Higher level languages like BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) were now extinct, and programming was no longer practiced. This is the time when minicomputers first appear.
Main electronic components, programming languages, memory, input/output devices, examples of third generation integrated circuits (ICs), high-level languages, large magnetic cores, magnetic tape/disk, monitor, keyboard, printer, etc. IBM 360, IBM 370, PDP-11, NCR 395, B6500, UNIVAC 1108, etc Microprocessors, fourth generation computers (1971–present).
The first microprocessors, or large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits built on a single chip, were used in 1971. One microprocessor can accommodate all the circuits needed to carry out arithmetic, logic, and control operations on a single chip, which is the technology’s greatest benefit.
Microcomputers are the term used to describe computers that use microchips. This generation offered computers that were even smaller in size but had higher capacities. When that wasn’t enough, Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits took the place of LSI circuits. The 1971-developed Intel 4004chip enabled a significant reduction in size by consolidating all of the computer’s parts, from the central processing unit and memory to the input/output controls, onto a single chip.
It became a more user-friendly and common device thanks to technologies like multiprocessing, multiprogramming, time-sharing, operating speed, and virtual memory. The fourth generation saw the creation of private computers and computer networks.
Examples of fourth generation Very large-scale integration (VLSI) and the microprocessor (VLSI has thousands of transistors on a single microchip) are the main characteristics of fourth generation computers. The main electronic component, memory, and input/output devices are also examples of fourth generation. semiconductor memory (such as RAM, ROM, etc. pointing devices, optical scanning, a keyboard, a monitor, a printer, etc. Apple II, Apple Macintosh, Alter 8800, IBM PC, STAR 1000, etc. Fifth-generation computers.
The fifth-generation of computers are powered by AI technology. It enables machines to act in human-like ways. It is frequently used in voice recognition, medical, and entertainment programs. It has also demonstrated impressive performance in the area of gaming, where computers are capable of defeating human competitors.
In fifth generation computers, speed is highest, size is smallest, and area of use has significantly increased. Although 100% AI has not yet been accomplished, it is frequently predicted that this dream will also soon come true given current developments.
It is frequently stated that a significant improvement has been observed in terms of operating speed and accuracy, but if we mention dimensions, its size has decreased over time. In addition to declining, value, reliability is actually rising.
The following are the primary attributes of computers in the fifth generation: main electronic component; language; size; input/output device; example of fifth generation based on artificial intelligence; uses Ultra Large-Scale Integration (ULSI) technology and parallel processing method (ULSI has millions of transistors on a single microchip, and parallel processing method uses two or more microprocessors to run tasks simultaneously). comprehend the language used by people. Easily transportable and compact. Trackpad (or touchpad), touchscreen, pen, speech input (recognize voice/speech), light scanner, printer, keyboard, monitor, mouse, etc. smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops, etc.
What are the 5 types of computer generation? : This extensive time span is frequently divided into the following phases, known as computer generations: First Generation Computers (1940–1956); Second Generation Computers (1956–1963); Third Generation Computers (1964–1971); Fourth Generation Computers (1971–present); and Fifth Generation Computers (present and beyond).
What are the 7 generations of computer?
The first generation of computers existed from 1940 to 1956, followed by the second generation from 1956 to 1963, the third generation from 1964 to 1971, the fourth generation from 1971 to 2010, the fifth generation from 2010 to the present, and the sixth generation (future generations).
What are the 1st to 5th generation of computer?
According to the methodology used to evaluate the advancement of computer technology, the first generation was based on vacuum tube computers, the second on transistor computers, the third on integrated circuit computers, the fourth on microprocessor computers, and the fifth on computers.
What is 6th generation of computer?
Computers in the sixth generation are referred to as intelligent computers because they are powered by artificial intelligence or artificial brains. In contrast, it feeds its processors raw materials like semiconductors.
Additional Question — What are the 5 types of computer generation?
What are the 5 types of computer generation and their characteristics?
1940–1956: First Generation Vacuum Tubes. The five generations of computers. These early computers had magnetic drums for memory and vacuum tubes for circuitry. 1956–1963: Second Generation Transistors. Third-generation integrated circuits, from 1964 to 1971. Microprocessors of the fourth generation, 1972–2010.
What is the name of first generation of computer?
ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM-701, and IBM-650 are a few examples of first-generation computers. Large and incredibly unreliable, these computers were. Only very simple calculations could be performed on them before they would heat up and frequently shut down.
What is 4th generation of computer?
From 1971 to 1980, there was a fourth generation. Fourth-generation computers used VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) circuits. Fourth generation microcomputers were made possible by VLSI circuits with about 5000 transistors and other circuit components with their corresponding circuits on a single chip.
What are examples of fifth generation computers?
The period of the fifth generation in 1980-onwards This generation is based on artificial intelligence The aim of the fifth generation is to make a device which could respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization Few Examples are:PDP-8 PDP-11 ICL 2900 IBM 360 IBM 370
What is the difference between first and fifth generation of computer?
Vacuum tubes were the foundation for the first generation of computers, while artificial intelligence and machine learning were the foundation for the fifth. One of the subjects covered in basic computer science classes in schools is computer generation.
What is the difference between first generation computer and second generation computer?
Vacuum tubes are used in older computers. Transistors are used in second-generation computers. First-generation computers are incredibly large. Second-generation computers are compact in size.